The Biden administration is negotiating with Pfizer to buy another 500 million doses of Covid-19 vaccine to donate overseas, which would bring the total number of planned donations to 1.15 billion doses — about a tenth of the world’s need — according to two people familiar with the plan. It was not immediately clear over what time period the donation would be.
The deal is not yet final, but the talks come just as the White House announced Mr. Biden will host a global Covid summit that on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly meeting next week. The president will use the summit to convince other nations to set aside domestic demands and instead focus on getting vaccine doses to poor countries dependent on donated shots.
White House officials said that Mr. Biden’s message to other nations is that the United States cannot and should not do it alone, and that all nations should honor exiting commitments.
The talks with Pfizer, which were reported without specifics earlier in The Washington Post, also come as Mr. Biden is under fire for proposing booster shots for already vaccinated Americans while citizens of poor nations have not even had their first doses. A scientific advisory committee to the Food and Drug Administration on Friday recommended booster shots for recipients of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine who are 65 or older or are at high risk of severe Covid-19, at least six months after the second shot. The move came shortly after the panel overwhelmingly recommended against approving a Pfizer booster for people 16 and older.
Jeff Zients, Mr. Biden’s coronavirus response coordinator, declined to offer specifics on the talks, saying only that how to help the 100 countries that are most in need would be “a big topic of conversation” at the U.N. gathering.
The World Health Organization has asked world leaders to refrain from rolling out boosters at least until the end of the year, with the goal of immunizing 40 percent of the global population first. Its experts, and others, have said a much more aggressive — and comprehensive — approach to fighting the global pandemic is needed.
“A piecemeal approach favors those who can most easily pay,” Dr. Kate O’Brien, the W.H.O.’s top vaccines expert, told reporters earlier this week. Without naming the United States, she noted that some countries are “moving forward with booster programs for which we do not see evidence that would support a need for broad booster programs in the general population. And at the same time, others haven’t even started vaccinating health workers or high risk groups sufficiently.”
The summit, which Mr. Biden plans to convene on Wednesday, will be the largest gathering of heads of state dedicated to addressing the coronavirus crisis. Previous gatherings have included much smaller groups of leaders, like those from the Group of 7 nations.
White House officials said that Mr. Biden aimed to inject a fresh sense of urgency in the fight against the pandemic, as well as to “create a bigger tent” of people and groups committed to ending the pandemic. Pharmaceutical makers, philanthropists and nongovernmental organizations are being invited to participate.
The officials said that Mr. Biden wants to forge consensus around a broad framework for action, including specific targets for vaccination. The officials offered few specifics, saying that the precise goals were still under discussion.
Understand Vaccine and Mask Mandates in the U.S.
- Vaccine rules. On Aug. 23, the Food and Drug Administration granted full approval to Pfizer-BioNTech’s coronavirus vaccine for people 16 and up, paving the way for an increase in mandates in both the public and private sectors. Private companies have been increasingly mandating vaccines for employees. Such mandates are legally allowed and have been upheld in court challenges.
- Mask rules. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in July recommended that all Americans, regardless of vaccination status, wear masks in indoor public places within areas experiencing outbreaks, a reversal of the guidance it offered in May. See where the C.D.C. guidance would apply, and where states have instituted their own mask policies. The battle over masks has become contentious in some states, with some local leaders defying state bans.
- College and universities. More than 400 colleges and universities are requiring students to be vaccinated against Covid-19. Almost all are in states that voted for President Biden.
- Schools. Both California and New York City have introduced vaccine mandates for education staff. A survey released in August found that many American parents of school-age children are opposed to mandated vaccines for students, but were more supportive of mask mandates for students, teachers and staff members who do not have their shots.
- Hospitals and medical centers. Many hospitals and major health systems are requiring employees to get a Covid-19 vaccine, citing rising caseloads fueled by the Delta variant and stubbornly low vaccination rates in their communities, even within their work force.
- New York City. Proof of vaccination is required of workers and customers for indoor dining, gyms, performances and other indoor situations, although enforcement does not begin until Sept. 13. Teachers and other education workers in the city’s vast school system will need to have at least one vaccine dose by Sept. 27, without the option of weekly testing. City hospital workers must also get a vaccine or be subjected to weekly testing. Similar rules are in place for New York State employees.
- At the federal level. The Pentagon announced that it would seek to make coronavirus vaccinations mandatory for the country’s 1.3 million active-duty troops “no later” than the middle of September. President Biden announced that all civilian federal employees would have to be vaccinated against the coronavirus or submit to regular testing, social distancing, mask requirements and restrictions on most travel.
However, the White House sent a draft document to summit invitees earlier this week that called for 70 percent of the world’s population to be vaccinated by the time the U.N. gathers again in September of next year.
Experts have estimated that 11 billion doses are necessary to achieve broad global immunity to the coronavirus. The United States has already committed to sending more than 600 million doses abroad, and is working to scale up manufacturing in this country and overseas, particularly in India.
But global health advocates say donating doses is not enough. They want Mr. Biden to work to create manufacturing hubs in many other countries and to press vaccine makers to share their technology as part of a far-reaching plan similar to the one former President George W. Bush created to address the global AIDS epidemic.
The White House officials who discussed Mr. Biden’s summit plan insisted the United States can do both. In an interview earlier this week, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, Mr. Biden’s top adviser for the coronavirus — and a driving force behind Mr. Bush’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief — said the administration was committed to doing more.
“We’re trying to figure out what is the best way to get a really fully impactful program going,” Dr. Fauci said, noting that building manufacturing plants overseas might be a reasonable step to prepare for any future pandemics, but could not happen quickly enough to end this one. “We want to do more, but we’re trying to figure out what the proper and best approach is.”
Reaching specific global vaccination targets has so far proven difficult. Covax, the U.N.-backed vaccine distribution program, announced this month that it would not be able to meet its forecast for doses available in 2021. So far, only 20 percent of people in poor and middle-income nations have received at least one dose of a Covid vaccine.